Vol.61 No.1（241）,June, 2014
- Yabuchi type pottery and the shell tool industry: based on an analysis of materials from the Bugeido Cave site, Okinawa
- YAMAZAKI Shinji
Abstract: The shell or bamboo tool hypothesis has been presented as one interpretation of the scarcity of flake tools in prehistoric Okinawa, but dedicated study has been rare until now. In this study, based on an analysis of the shell artifacts accompanied by Yabuchi type pottery from the Bugeido Cave site, I suggest that tools made from mother-of-pearl shell, including arrowheads and knives, were manufactured to perform the same function as stone flake tools. Two factors seem to be related to the appearance of this shell tool industry during Yabuchi phase. The first is the geological resource environment of Okinawa; restricted distribution of the raw materials needed for flake tools. The other is the cultural context; the development of shell use by human groups adapting to this insular environment. In other words, the unique shell tool industry of the Yabuchi phase, represented by shell arrowhead, may be indicative of long term adaptation to this resource scarce environment during preceding phases in Okinawa. Yabuchi type pottery is one of the oldest pottery groups in Okinawa and its origin has long been discussed. However there are no similar examples in surrounding regions. In recent years, pottery older than the Yabuchi type has been discovered at a few sites in Okinawa, and the Yabuchi type may have been derived from those older pottery groups. If this is so, we can more accurately explain the origin of shell tool industry. These shell tools are tiny and fragile, and difficult to detect during excavation. Additionally, careful observation is required to identify them. The material that has been reported so far seems to be only part of the whole, and so, we must pay more attention to identifying these shell tools from now.Keywords: Okinawa; Bugeido site; Yabuchi type pottery; shell arrowhead; shell tool.
- The development of tottaimon pottery in the eastern Inland Sea region of Japan
- SENOO Yusuke
Abstract: This paper aims to clarify the process of transition seen in tottaimon pottery and determine its final stage. It analyzes typologically the deep-bowl shape of pottery, taking the Kawachi region as a model. Based in part on differences in the tottaimon decoration method, this type of pottery divides into Groups 1-9, with a transition in the decoration methodʼs efficiency. Groups 1-5 used the method of pasting on the tottai, a band of clay, by holding the top and bottom sides of the tottai in one hand while supporting the inside of the rim with the other (motion α). This is the traditional tottaimon decoration method in the Kawachi region. However, Groups 6-8 used the method of pasting by holding both the inner surface of the pot and the top of the tottai with a single hand (motion β). It is impossible to explain this change from motion α to β from within the Kawachi region. Rather, motion β originated from Harima and diffused to Kawachi with the emergence of Group 6, a phenomenon indicating strong influence from the west and illustrating the fluidity of inter-regional exchange linked with the emergence of Yayoi pottery. Group 9, the final stage depending on the typological method, is different in origin from Groups 1-8 and represents a transitional development. It came from Awa, and is distributed at fewer sites in the Kawachi region, showing the end of tottaimon pottery. Based on the above typological analysis, a chronology of Final Jōmon pottery including other shapes is worked out, and a five-phase division is proposed for the Kinki region. In addition, a characterization is presented of the style content for the last phase of Jōmon pottery.Keywords: Typologocal method; style theory; regional variationsof the Nagahama-type; the Kawachi region; Final Jomon pottery.
- Derivation and regional characteristics of eave roof tiles of the Asuka and Hakuhō periods in the Kii region
- TANNO Taku
Abstract: In this contribution I study eave roof tiles of the Asuka and Hakuhō periods, including not only unearthed materials but also surface collections, recovered mainly from the lower Kinokawa river basin. It has generally been considered that the Sakatadera type eave tiles were the earliest in the Kii region; however, I found that the Funabashi abandoned temple type round eave tile with a plain lotus design appeared earlier than the Sakatadera type. In addition, I was able to discern large numbers of Korean style round eave tiles distributed in the region. Observing the examples of eave tiles recovered from the Yamaguchi, Nishikokubu, and Ueno abandoned temple sites, which are located around the boundary between the Nagusa and Naga areas, I infer that artisans of Buddha statues from immigrant clans were engaged in making the roof tile molds, and craftsmen of Sue pottery also participated in the production of roof tiles. I argue that the emergence of the Ueno abandoned temple type eave tile was not directly related to the reconstructed Saiin compound of Hōryūji temple or to Moto Yakushiji temple, but to temples around the Ōtsu Imperial Palace in Ōmi and in the southern Yamashiro region and to the Sainoo abandoned temple site, which were established under the influence of the counterparts in the Unified Silla Kingdom. Next, I examine the derivations of eave roof tiles in the Asuka and Hakuhō periods in the Kii region, and identified two major groups distributed there. The group distributed in the lower Kinokawa river basin, that is the central area of the Kii region, shows regional characteristics with some connections to counterparts in the Kinai region, western Japan, and the Korean peninsula. On the other hand, the group distributed in the upper Kinokawa river basin, which is a peripheral area, shows strong influence from the Kinai region. This suggests that the temples in this area were established with assistance from the Kinai region in the period of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō. There is no evidence of diffusion of eave tiles between the two areas. In addition, the Saya abandoned temple site and the Kaieji temple, located in the southern end of the Kinai region, show distinctive characteristics of the national temples in the Tenmu-Jitō period. Studying the derivations and regional characteristics of eave roof tiles in these areas provides important clues to understanding the relationship between the Kii and Kinai regions.Keywords: Kii region; Korean Peninsula; Ueno abandoned temple type eave roof tile; distribution of eave roof tiles; southern end the Kinai region.
- Comparison of stone tool assemblages and subsistence in settlements of the Korean Bronze Age
- SON Joon-Ho (translated by NAKAMURA Daisuke)
Abstract: Stone tools are produced by the necessities of daily life. Therefore archaeologists often try to approach prehistoric lifestyles and subsistence patterns through an examination of their function. The purpose of this study is revealing the change of subsistence and socio-economical relationships among the settlements in Bronze Age by analysis of stone tool. As a result of the analysis, the author revealed following points. Firstly, large settlements commonly had their basis on agriculture, besides people used the geographical environment effectively by gathering, hunting and fishing. Secondly, intensification of the wet-rice cultivation led such changes as the expansion of agricultural production, the increasing of conflict, and the growth of stone tools production for trade. Finally, by the analysis of the Hoseo area settlements, it was found that some settlements seemed to play a particular role from around Late Bronze Age. Although specialized settlements for storage and ritual had similar stone-tools assemblages to common settlements, only specialized settlements for trade had different assemblages. It is possible that trade settlements did not rely on agriculture. In regard to large settlements such as Gwanchang-ri and Songguk-ri sites, difference was not seen in stone-tool assemblage.Keywords: Korean peninsula; Bronze Age; assemblage of stone tools;subsistence; socio-economy.
REPORTS, NEWS AND APPEALS
- The excavation of Kanai Higashiura site and the ‘Kofun General Survey’ in Gunma prefecture
- FUKAZAWA Atsuhito
- A report of the 30th anniversary symposium of the Regional Meeting of the Society of Archaeological Studies in Kansai
- UEDA Naoya
- A report of the second public opening day of the conservation laboratory for the murals of the Takamatsuzuka tomb site
- UOZU Tomokatsu
- An observation report of the Noguchi Ōbo tomb site (Mausoleum for Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jito at Hinokuma Ouchi)
- HIGASHIKAGE Yu
- A report of attendance at the 46th meeting of “Regional Gathering to Consider and Reconsider the Significance of Japanese Foundation Day, Okayama”
- FURUICHI Hideharu
- The Niidatate site, Minami-Sanriku Town, Miyagi Prefecture
- Education Board of Minami Sanriku
- The Nonaka tomb site, Fujiidera City, Osaka Prefecture
- NAKAKUBO Tatsuo