Vol.64 No.2（254）, September 2017
PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE 63rd ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY:
DISASTER AND ARCHAEOLOGY: SUSTAINABILITY AND DISCONTINUITY Part 1
- Response of hunter-gatherer societies to volcanic disasters: Focusing on cases in Kyushu
- KUWAHATA Mitsuhiro
Abstract:This paper studies the responses of hunter-gatherers to volcanic disasters that occurred in Kyushu during the initial Jomon period, focusing on the following three examples: the Kikai-Akahoya eruption (K-Ah), which is representative of a massive explosive eruption, the Sakurajima-11 eruption (Sz-11) and the Kirishima-Ushinosune eruption (UsA). The last two cases are smaller than K-Ah on the eruption scale. As a result, it is inferred that, regardless of the size of the eruption, the social responses of hunter-gatherer societies to volcanic disasters were either “avoid” or ”endure”. It is possible that the hunter-gatherers who did not perished as a direct result of the pyroclastic flow overcame the disaster by changing residence area and territory, and their range of activities to cope with the deterioration of the environment and availability of food resources. It is thought that highly mobile societies were more adaptable than sedentary societies to sudden and violent changes to the natural environment.Keywords: the initial Jomon period; Kyushu; volcanic disaster; hunter-gatherer society; social response.
- Traces of local disaster and buried cultural properties research: Before and after a sediment-related disaster in the northeastern Kyoto basin of the Yayoi period
- TOMII Makoto
Abstract: I stress that even though traces of extraordinary natural events such as volcanic eruptions or massive earthquakes are recognized during excavation, making an appropriate assessment of the damage caused by such an event is extremely difficult. This is more so in cases of sediment-related disasters of a local nature, such as flooding and debris flow. Explaining the residents’ recovery from such a disaster is even more challenging, because the archaeologist must first demonstrate the actual extent of the damage, and then verify that the people who were active afterwards were the same as those who suffered the disaster. Nevertheless, I emphasize that buried cultural properties investigations play a major role for local governments when compiling lists of past natural disasters, to improve the hazard maps in terms of the history of disaster for their local areas. Here, I provide as example a case study focusing on a large-scale debris flow that occurred during the transition from the Early to Middle Yayoi periods at the Shirakawa alluvial fan in the northeastern Kyoto basin, covering Early Yayoi paddies at two locations. I attempt to examine whether the local culture of the end of the Early Yayoi period, immediately before the debris flow, had been destroyed by or rather had withstood, this local disaster at the beginning of the Middle Yayoi, by comparing the material culture of two consecutive periods forming a short span encompassing the debris flow, mainly in terms of pottery and mortuary features.Keywords: local disaster; buried cultural properties; debris flow; Kyoto basin; Early Yayoi period.
- Diversification of Jōmon cord marking and its context: A case study of Late Jōmon pottery from the group of sites at the southwestern base of Mt. Hiei
- TAKANO Sanae
Abstract: In this contribution I study how the diversification of cord marking arose through an analysis of the separate vessel types of Late Jōmon pottery, which exhibits the greatest variety of cord mark patterns for the Jōmon period in the Kinki region. Using materials recovered from the group of Jōmon sites at the southwestern base of Mt. Hiei, I analyze changes in pottery thickness, changes in the types of cord marking, the relationships between the types of vessels and types of cord marking, and the correlation between the pattern width and density of nodes for different cord-marking patterns based on the number of cords comprising the pattern. The results of the analysis are as follows:
1） There is no correlation between changes in vessel types and changes in the twist direction of the cord used for marking.
2） A change toward larger numbers of cords comprising the pattern is seen regardless of the twist direction.
3） There were specific norms for types of cord marking for particular vessel types.
4） The majority of rolled knotted cord impressions consist of marks made with two-ply counter-rotating （LR） cord.
5） The pattern made with supplemental cord wrapping is found on the surface of spouted pots.
I conclude that the minute nodes brought about by the change toward larger numbers of cords comprising the pattern can be understood as the result of the Jōmon group living in the area changing its cord-marking patterns in harmony with changes in other attributes. Based on the gradual nature of this change in cord marking, I point to the possibility of these changes coming about indigenously within this region.Keywords: Jōmon cord marking; vessel type; pattern width; node density; knotted cord impressions.
- Regionality seen in vertical stone chambers and its significance
- UEDA Naoya
Abstract: The Kofun period was an era in which tremendous energy was poured into the construction of individual graves for kings and chiefs. As it was not merely that grave goods were exquisite, but also that extremely elaborate execution was seen in the coffins and the facilities which contained them, the unraveling of this attribute bit by bit may provide an effective historical framework for pursuing research into interpersonal relationships among the interred, or the characteristics of the regional powers to which they belonged.
With regard to vertical stone chambers, ranked as the highest burial facility in the first half of the Kofun period, the structure of the base portion has fundamentally become the material for examinations of regionality. But as the base portion’s structure is mainly for the purpose of supporting the weight of the coffin, and is of necessity greatly influenced by whether the coffin material is wood or stone, issues of regionality or lines of derivation have not received much treatment especially for vertical stone chambers that held sarcophagi. By conducting an examination, based on the cross-sectional shape of the chambers’ interior space, of vertical stone chambers taking as object examples having both wooden coffins and sarcophagi, the current contribution points out that clear regionality can be recognized for vertical stone chambers of the Kinai region, and that this regionality continues to be maintained even when chambers reach the stage of containing sarcophagi. Also, from the examples of the Tsudō Shiroyama tomb in Osaka and the Muro Miyayama tomb in Nara, it is regarded that the burial facility adopted for the highest ranking stratum of the Middle Kofun, consisting to begin with of the Mozu and Furuichi tomb groups, was more intimately related to the regional characteristics of Kawachi rather than Yamato or Yamashiro.Keywords: Kofun period; vertical stone chambers; interior space; regionality; chest-shaped sarcophagi.
- Fusion of different systems of cylindrical haniwa during the second half of late Kofun period in Izumo and western Houki
- TANAKA Hiroshi
Abstract: This paper reports on a systematic study of cylindrical haniwa from Izumo and western Houki, Izumo, in the San’in region, and is intended to clarify community dynamics through an understanding of the system of haniwa production.
A result of the study, we determined that a new haniwa production system was established in the latter half of the late Kofun period. This is considered to be the integration and restructuring of the existing haniwa production systems. In addition, the new system appears unrelated to haniwa production in Kinai, and its use was restricted to within the region.
This change may have been brought about by the assumed formation of a broad-based network between the chiefs across the Izumo and western Houki area based on the appearance of impressive tumuli.Keywords: Izumo and western Houki; the second half of late Kofun period; cylindrical haniwa; production system; community.
REPORTS, NEWS AND APPEALS
- Opinion on the “Conspiracy law” from archaeological perspective
- Standing Committee of the Society
- Remains of modern warfare 4: Aonohara POW camp and Uzurano Airfield, Kasai City, Hyogo Prefecture
- Kasai City Board of Education
- NAKAKUBO Tatsuo. Cultural interaction and state formation in ancient Japan
- TSUCHIDA Junko
- TSUCHIDA Junko. Kudara pottery in East Asia
- NAKAKUBO Tatsuo
- TAKAHASHI Nobutake. Archaeological study of the Seinan War
- WATANABE Yoshiro
- OKAMURA Hidenori. Ancient histories derived from ancient mirrors
- TSUJITA Jun’ichiro
- The Liangzhu Archaeological Sites, Zhejiang Province, China
- NAKAMURA Shin-ichi, Bin Liu and Ningyuan Wang
- Deer stones in the north central region of Mongolia
- HAYASHI Toshio