Vol.65 No.1（257）, June 2018
- Acts of additional/secondary burial in abandoned-building graves of the Jōmon period
- NAKAMURA Kousaku
Abstract: This contribution examines additional and secondary burials in abandoned-building graves which are prominently seen along the coast of Tokyo Bay in the Kantō region in the latter half of the Middle Jōmon period （5,000-4,500 cal BP）.
In addition to abandoned-building graves having only one burial per structure, in the middle portion of the Middle Jōmon there are instances of multiple corpses being distributed on the floor of pit structures, or of multiple corpses in the soil covering a pit structure. In this contribution both types are regarded as “additional burials”(group burials with a temporal lag among their conponents）, and these are understood in comprehensive fashion as transitioning over time from additional burials made in a horizontal direction on the structure’s floor to those made in a vertical direction extending from the floor into the overlying soil. In most instances the abandoned-building grave’s appearance following the placement of a corpse showed a condition of the structure being dismantled and filled to a certain degree, and examples of burials in a horizontal direction with the structure intact are rare. This method was soon discontinued, and replaced by one in which additional burials were added successively in a vertical direction.
Also, from examples in which a condition of open space around an unburied corpse is inferred from the natural movement of human bones, it was confirmed that acts of manipulating the remains （secondary burial） took place after the lapse of an interval following the death.
Continual involvement with an abandoned pit structure （secondary utilization） and with human remains （secondary burial） have points in common, and were linked as mortuary customs transformed in keeping with trends of the settlement as a whole.
In general, the repetition of mortuary ritual at a single location converts the spot into sacred ground, and also serves as opportunity for attempting to restructure the social order using the dead as a medium. Also, the performance of secondary burial repeatedly over long intervals has the same manner of function. Among such phenomena, abandoned-building graves in which the concrete process of mortuary practice can be examined have important value as data.Keywords: additional burial; secondary burial; accumulation; restructuring; secondary utilization.
- One aspect of axe-shaped stone imitative objects: Through an analysis of the characteristic socketed axe-shaped stone imitative objects
- SAKUMA Masaaki
Abstract: This contribution takes as its aim the clarification of aspects of stone imitative objects that gained popularity around the middle of the Kofun period. Together with showing that irregular perforations seen in some socketed-axe-shaped stone imitative objects were holes made for repair, from the use of these items as grave goods even while repairing them, the issue of their “necessity” is addressed. From examples of their accompanying large amounts of iron objects in mortuary facilities for iron implements not containing human burials, the “precious nature” of these stone imitative items is indicated. Further, in tombs where repaired socketed-axe-shaped objects are recovered, it was confirmed that in addition to axe-shaped items being spatially distinct from knife-shaped stone objects, the axe-shaped stone objects are numerically “superior” to the knife-shaped items.
In addition, in the Kantō and Tōhoku regions the ratio of axe-shaped items is higher towards the time of emergence of stone imitative objects, with their numerical superiority over knife-shaped stone objects being recognizable. This trend can also be confirmed for the Kinai region. Further, at the time of their emergence they were comparatively faithful imitations of iron axes, but gradually came to be dominated by more simplified items.
It is pointed out that the transformation of stone imitative objects as a whole, as represented by axe-shaped items, was possibly linked with changes in the relations of sets of stone objects that were imitative of agricultural and woodworking tools, and with the transition to their interment in large numbers centering on knife-shaped items. It is further stated that stone imitative objects were indispensable to mortuary ritual, and emerged bearing their necessity as items symbolizing the functions of iron agricultural and woodworking tools.Keywords: Kofun; axe-shaped stone imitative objects; holes for repairs; iron axes.
- The production system of haniwa from the Furuichi Mounded Tomb Group during the Middle Kofun period
- KIMURA Osamu
Abstract: During the Middle Kofun period, which stretched from the late 4th century to the end of the 5th century AD, the locus of the central polity is considered to have been the large-scale mounded tomb groups of the Kawachi and Izumi regions, such as the Furuichi Mounded Tomb Group.
Cylindrical haniwa, a significant amount of which has been unearthed, are highly instructive when considering the relationships between the mounded tombs at the heart of the central polity. In this paper, I clarify their various lineages, reconsider their chronology, and reconstruct the nature of their production. Additionally, I assert that the second half of the 5th century （from the TK208 to TK23 phase） witnessed the following three changes: 1） the craftsmen groups serving large-scale mounded tombs were reorganized and haniwa types saw an accompanying renewal; 2） some small mounded tombs began to be equipped with small-sized cylindrical haniwa made by the same craftsmen groups that furnished large-scale tombs; and 3） less labor began to be invested in small-sized cylindrical haniwa across the whole Furuichi Mounded Tomb Group.
I also suggest that these phenomena transcend haniwa production and are intimately linked with social changes, such as the transformation of haniwa rituals, increasing social complexity, and shifts in the relationships with those groups responsible for the construction of other large-scale mounded tomb groups. I thus evaluate this period as a phase of dramatic change in the Japanese archipelago. Furthermore, while the end of the 5th century （the TK23 to TK47 phase） has traditionally been considered as an epoch, I contend that certain significant changes began earlier and propose that these changes should rather be viewed as a gradual process.Keywords: Furuichi Mounded Tomb Group; cylindrical haniwa; artifact lineages; chronology; production systems.
- Kinki-style Jōmon pottery excavated from the Kuginosengen site
- FUKUNAGA Masahiro
Abstract: In this paper I investigate Jomon period pottery produced in the Kinki regional style excavated from the Kuginosengen site in Kokonoe, Oita prefecture. As a result, I have recognized traits such as form, decoration, and a technique of decoration that derives from Ichizyoji K-type and Motosumiyoshiyama I-type potteries of the Kinki region dating to the middle phase of the Late Jomon period. However, it is unlikely that the Kinki regional style vessels recovered at the Kuginosengen site had been transported from the Kinki region, as several of their traits, such as the decoration, and the paste from which there were produced, is not found in the Kinki region. Additionally, most of the Kinki style pots at the Kuginosengen site are spouted vessels. From these findings, I propose that the remains observed at the Kuginosengen site were produced by human interactions specifically concerning inter-communal gatherings of a ritualistic nature.
Keywords: the middle phase of the late Jomon; Kuginosengen site; the phenomenon of pottery spread; interaction; the different style pottery.
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